عنوان مقاله [English]
Today, plastics are one of the most useful materials in human life. The physical and chemical properties of these polymers have expanded their wide range of applications. However, they cannot be degraded in the environment for a long time and produce toxic substances during their prolonged destruction processes. Replacing petrochemical- derived plastics with biodegradable polymers, which have sustainable sources, can be an environmentally- friendly solution. An important group of the biopolymers is polyhydroxyalkanoates that are produced naturally by some microorganisms in food stress condition and act as storage materials. Many studies have used different methods such as genetic engineering, optimization of production conditions and utilization of inexpensive culture media such as waste waters, to production, increasing amount, or decreasing the production costs of polyhydroxyalkanoates by organisms. This manuscript reviewed the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates in the wild and transgenic organisms, as well as economic aspects of replacing chemical plastics with these natural polymers. Cost is a critical and limiting factor in the biopolymer production industry. So the manufacturing cannot compete with the chemical plastics industry yet. The researchers and craftsmen all over the world are still working in order to reduce production costs. Undoubtedly, in the near future, due to the high environmental pollution caused by common plastics and the decline of fossil fuels consumption, expenses of the natural plastics production will be justifiable.