نگاهی کلی به ساختار و خواص نفیون با توجه به کاربرد آن در غشای تبادل پروتون پیل سوختی

نوع مقاله : تالیفی

نویسندگان

1 عضو هیئت علمی پژوهشگاه پلیمر و پتروشیمی ایران

2 پژوهشگاه پلیمر و پتروشیمی ایران

چکیده

در این مقاله به معرفی ساختار و خواص غشای تبادل پروتون نفیون به­عنوان رایج‌ترین غشای استفاده­شده در فرایندهای الکتروشیمیایی و جداسازی پرداخته شده است. بدین منظور، در ابتدا خانواده‌ غشاهای پرفلوئوروسولفونیک اسید معرفی شده که نفیون مهم‌ترین عضو آن است. سپس، مراحل سنتز نفیون همراه با جزئیات و چالش‌ها و نیز ساختار نفیون و شکل­شناسی آن در مرحله‌ بعد بحث و بررسی شده است. روش نام‌گذاری انواع غشاهای نفیون براساس مشخصه وزن معادل نیز ارائه شده است. در ادامه به وزن مولکولی و عوامل مؤثر بر عملکرد و خواص نفیون پرداخته شده است. خواص و مشخصه‌های غشای نفیون از جمله جذب آب، پایداری شیمیایی، رفتار گرمایی، خواص مکانیکی و عوامل مؤثر بر آن، رسانش پروتون و سازوکارهای حاکم بر رسانش در این پلیمر بحث شده­اند. در نهایت، معایب غشاهای نفیونی اعم از نداشتن قابلیت کارکرد در دمای زیاد و رطوبت کم و قیمت زیاد نیز ارائه شده است. در این راستا، راهکارهای پیشنهادی پژوهشگران برای بهبود خواص و رفع معایب در دو بخش اصلاح غشاهای نفیونی و تهیه‌ غشاهای جدید جایگزین شرح داده شده است. نگاهی مختصر بر کاربردهای نفیون، روش‌های تهیه‌ غشا، فعال­سازی و نگه­داری آن و همچنین غشای نفیون تجاری ساخت شرکت Dupont نیز انجام گرفته است. قابل ذکر است، این مطالب با تمرکز بر کاربرد آن در غشای تبادل پروتون پیل سوختی ارائه ­شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

An Overview on Structure and Properties of Nafion Regarding Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Application

نویسندگان [English]

  • Shahram Mehdipour-Ataei 1
  • Maryam Mohammadi 2
1 academic staff ippi
2 Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute
چکیده [English]

I n this paper, the structure and properties of the proton exchange Nafion membrane are presented as the most commonly used membrane in electrochemical and separation processes. To this end, the family of perfluorosulfonic acid membranes has been introduced, which Nafion is the most important member. Then, the details and challenges of Nafion synthesis as well as its structure and morphology are discussed in the next step. The nomenclature, as well as the equivalent weight characteristic of diverse types of Nafion membranes, is also described. In the following, the molecular weight and factors affecting the performance and properties of Nafion are discussed. The properties and characteristics of Nafion membrane, including water absorption, chemical stability, thermal behavior, mechanical properties, proton conduction as well as governing mechanisms are explained. Finally, the disadvantages of these membranes, including the low performance at high temperatures and low humidity and high cost, are mentioned. The solutions to remove the obstacles are proposed. These strategies are described in two sections: modification of Nafion membranes and the preparation of alternative membranes. A brief look at the applications of Nafion, the preparation methods of the membrane, activation, and maintenance, as well as the commercial Nafion membrane made by DuPont company has been done. Notably, the description of this material is performed by focusing on the application of this membrane in proton exchange membrane fuel cells.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Nafion
  • structure
  • Properties
  • application
  • proton exchange membrane fuel cell
1. Handbook of Membrane Separations: Chemical, Pharmaceutical, Food, and Biotechnological Applications, Pabby A.K.,Rizvi S.S., and Requena A.M.S. (Eds.), CRC, 568-609, 2015.
2. Mauritz K.A. and Moore R.B., State of Understanding of Nafion, Chem. Rev., 104, 10, 4535-4586, 2004.
3. Gierke T.D., Munn G.E., and Wilson F., The Morphology in Nafion Perfluorinated Membrane Products, as Determined by Wide‐ and Small‐Angle X‐Ray Studies, J. Polym. Sci. Pol.
Phys., 19, 11, 1687-1704, 1981.
4. Heitner-Wirguin C., Recent Advances in Perfluorinated Ionomer Membranes: Structure, Properties and Applications, J. Membr. Sci., 120, 1–33, 1996.
5. Sapkota P., Boyer C., Dutta R., Cazorla C., and Aguey-Zinsou K.F., Planar Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells: Powering Portable Devices from Hydrogen, Sustain. Energ.
Fuels, 4, 439-468, 2020.
6. Kariduraganavar M.Y., Nagarale R.K., Kittur A.A., and Kulkarni S.S., Ion-Exchange Membranes Preparative Methods for Electrodialysis and Fuel Cell Applications, Desalination, 197, 225-246, 2006.
7. Gloukhovski R., Freger V., and Tsur Y., Understanding Methods of Preparation and Characterization of Pore-Filling Polymer Composites for Proton Exchange Membranes: A Beginner’s Guide, Rev. Chem. Eng., 34, 455-479, 2018.
8. Rollet A.L., Diat O., and Gebel G., A New Insight into Nafion Structure, J. Phys. Chem. B, 106, 12, 3033-3036, 2002.
9. Majsztrik P.W., Mechanical and Transport Properties of Nafion® for PEM Fuel Cells; Temperature and Hydration Effects, Ph.DThesis, Princeton University, January 2008.
10. Karimi M.B., Mohammadi F., and Hooshyari K., Recent Approaches to Improve Nafion  Performance for Fuel CellApplications: A Review, Int. J. Hydrogen Energ., 44, 28919-
28938, 2019.
11. Zhao N.,  Xie Z., and Shi Z., Understanding of Nafion MembraneAdditive Behaviors in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Conditioning, J. Electrochem. Energy Convers. Storage, 16,
011011, 2019.
12. De Almeida S.H. and Kawano Y., Thermal Behavior of Nafion Membranes, J. Therm. Anal. Calorim., 58, 569-577, 1999.
13. Almaraz G.M.D., Duarte L.M.T., and Pacheco C.J.T., Tension- Torsion Fatigue Tests on the Proton Exchange Membrane Nafion 115 (Perfluorosulfonic Acid), Frattura Integr. Strutt.,
13, 360-369, 2019.
14. Lin Q., Sun X., Chen X., and Shi S., Effect of Pretreatment on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Nafion™ XL Composite Membrane, Fuel Cells, 19, 530-538, 2019.
15. Wang J., Zhang H., Yang X., Jiang S., Lv W., Jiang Z., and Qiao S.Z., Enhanced Water Retention by Using Polymer ic Micro capsules to Confer High Proton Conductivity on
Mem branes at Low Humidity, Adv. Funct. Mater., 21, 971-978, 2011.
16. Zhang H., He Y., Zhang J., Ma L., Li Y., and Wang J., Constructing Dual-interfacial Proton-Conducting Pathways in Nanofibrous Composite Membrane for Efficient Proton Transfer, J. Membr. Sci., 505, 108-118, 2016.
17. Jung D.H., Cho S.Y., Peck D.H., Shin D.R., and Kim, J.S., Preparation and Performance of a Nafion®/Montmorillonite Nanocomposite Membrane for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell, J.
Power Sources, 118, 205-211, 2003.
18. Jalani N.H., Dunn K., and Datta R., Synthesis and Characterization of Nafion®-MO2 (M= Zr, Si, Ti) Nanocomposite Membranes for Higher Temperature PEM Fuel Cells, Electrochim. Acta, 51, 553-560, 2005.
19. Oh K., Kwon O., Son B., Lee D.H., and Shanmugam S., Nafion- Sulfonated Silica Composite Membrane for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Under Operating Low Humidity
Condition, J. Membr. Sci., 583, 103-109, 2019.
20. Pintauro P.N., and Wycisk R., Polymeric Membranes for Fuel Cells: Overview and Future Outlook ,Workshop on Membrane Science, Advanced Photon Source in Argonne National
Laboratory, Illinois, USA 17-18, August, 2004.
21. Dunwoody D. and Leddy J., Proton Exchange Membranes: The View Forward and Back, Electrochem. Soc. Interface, 14, 37-40, 2005.
22. Li Y., Wang F., Yang J., Liu D., Roy A., Case S., Lesko J. et al., Synthesis and Characterization of Controlled Molecu lar Weight Disulfonated Poly(arylene ether sulfone) Copoly mers and Their Applications to Proton Exchange Membranes,
Polymer, 47, 4210-4217, 2006.
23. Gil M., Ji X., Li X., Na H., Hampsey J.E., and Lu Y., Direct Synthesis of Sulfonated Aromatic Poly(ether ether ketone) Proton Exchange Membranes for Fuel Cell Applications, J.
Membr. Sci., 234, 75-81, 2004.
24. Rao A.S., Rashmi K.R., Manjunatha D.V., Jayarama A., Prabhu S., and Pinto R., Pore Size Tuning of Nafion Membranes by UV Irradiation for Enhanced Proton Conductivity for Fuel Cell
Applications, Int. J. Hydrogen Energ., 44, 23762-23774, 2019.
25. Oroujzadeh M., Mehdipour-Ataei S., and Esfandeh M., New Proton Exchange Membranes Based On Sulfonated Poly(arylene ether sulfone) Copolymers: Effect of Chain Structure
On Methanol Crossover, Int. J. Polym. Mater. Po., 64, 279- 286, 2015.
26. Jannasch P., Recent Developments in High-Temperature Proton Conducting Polymer Electrolyte Membranes, Curr. Opin. Colloid In., 8, 96-102, 2003.
27. Akbarian-Feizi L., Mehdipour-Ataei S., and Yeganeh H., Survey of Sulfonated Polyimide Membra ne as a Good Candidate for Nafion Substitution in Fuel Cell, Int. J. Hydrogen Energ., 35, 9385-9397, 2010.
28. Mohammadi M. and Mehdipour-Ataei S., Durable Sulfonated Partially Fluorinated Polysulfones as Membrane for PEM Fuel Cell, Renew. Energ., 158, 421-430, 2020.