رزین‌ها، کامپوزیت‌ها و کوپلیمرهای برپایه هیومین؛ تبدیل محصولات جانبی کم‌ارزش فرایند زیست‌پالایش به مواد باارزش افزوده زیاد

نوع مقاله : تالیفی

نویسنده

پژوهشگاه استاندارد

چکیده

امروزه به­ دلیل اتمام سریع سوخت­ های فسیلی، تقاضای فزاینده­ ای برای تولید مواد مبتنی بر منابع تجدیدپذیر وجود دارد. تولید اجزای سازنده کربنی جدید و متنوع از منابع زیست­ توده­ای، امیدوارکننده ­ترین راه حل برای کاهش و در نهایت جایگزینی مواد شیمیایی مشتق ­شده از نفت است. وجود گروه­ های عاملی متعدد در مواد شیمیایی مشتق ­شده از زیست­ توده اغلب به تشکیل محصولات جانبی متنوع منجر می­شود. کربوهیدرات­ها فراوان­ترین منبع کربن زیست­ پایه بوده و بنابراین گزینه مناسبی برای توسعه مواد اولیه از زیست­ توده هستند. در حین فرایند آب­گیری کاتالیزشده با اسید کربوهیدرات­ها، ترکیبات شیمیایی تجدیدپذیر باارزشی مانند فورفورال، هیدروکسی ­متیل­فورفورال (HMF) و لوولینیک اسید (LA) تشکیل می­شوند که از این ترکیبات به ­عنوان ماده اولیه برای سنتز سایر ترکیبات شیمیایی مهم استفاده می­شود. طی این فرایند، مقادیر زیادی از محصولات جانبی کربنی و نامحلول تشکیل می­شوند که معمولا با واکنش­های پلیمرشدن عرضی HMF و چند حد واسط ناشی از آب­گیری قندها، تشکیل می­شوند. تشکیل این مواد که هیومین نامیده می­شوند، موجب کاهش بازده زیادی در فرایندهای زیست­ پالایش می­ شود. ساختار شیمیایی هیومین دارای گروه­های عاملی متنوعی است که می­تواند برای توسعه گروه جدیدی از مواد گرماسخت و کامپوزیت­ ها به­ کار ­رود و فرصت عالی برای افزایش مقدار کربن تجدیدپذیر محصولات نهایی و بهبود خواص آن­ها ارائه ­دهد. در این مقاله، کاربردهای مختلف هیومین برای تهیه رزین­ها، کامپوزیت­ها و کوپلیمرهای با مقدار کربن زیست­ پایه زیاد ارائه شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Humin-Based Resins, Composites and Copolymers; Conversion of Low-Value By-products of the Biorefining Process into High Value-Added Materials

نویسنده [English]

  • Fezzeh Aryanasab
Standard Research Institute (SRI)
چکیده [English]

T oday, due to the rapid exhaustion of fossil fuels, there is a growing demand for the
production of materials based on renewable sources. The production of new and
diverse carbon components from biomass sources is the most promising solution to the
reduction and eventual replacement of petroleum-derived chemicals. The presence of
many functional groups in biomass-derived chemicals often leads to the formation of a
various by-products. Carbohydrates are the most abundant source of bio-based carbon
and are therefore a viable option for the development of raw materials from biomass.
During the acid-catalyzed dehydration of carbohydrates, valuable renewable chemical
compounds such as furfural, hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF) and levolinic acid (LA) are
formed, which are used as raw materials for the synthesis of other important chemical
compounds. During this process, large amounts of carbon and insoluble by-products are
formed, which are usually formed by cross-polymerization reactions of HMF and several
intermediates resulting from the dehydration of sugars. The formation of these substances,
called humines, greatly reduces the efficiency of biorefining processes. The chemical
structure of humine has a variety of functional groups that can be used to develop a new set
of thermosets and composites, providing an excellent opportunity to increase the amount of
renewable carbon in the final products and improve their properties. In this paper, various
applications of humins for the preparation of resins, composites and copolymers with high
level of bio-based carbon are presented.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Biorefinery by-products
  • humin
  • bioresin
  • biocomposite
  • biocopolymer
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