عنوان مقاله [English]
In recent years, membrane production technology has been emerged as an efficient technique in the water treatment. Membrane technology contributes up to 53% of total world processes for production of clean water and is an effective approach for water treatment due to its simplicity in operation, cost effective, no addition of chemical additives and high removal capacity. Membrane based separations are commonly based on polymeric membranes because of their higher flexibility, easily pore forming mechanism, low cost and smaller space for installation as compared to inorganic membranes. Materials used for fabrication of polymeric membranes include Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA), Polyether sulfone (PES), Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and Polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Polymer membranes also have defects that can be improved by surface modification with nanoscale materials. Major limitation of membrane based separations is fouling and polymeric membranes being hydrophobic in nature are more prone to fouling. Modification of polymeric membranes with nanomaterials such as metal based and carbon based results in polymeric nano-composite membranes with high antifouling characteristics. Nanomaterials impart high selectivity, permeability, hydrophilicity, thermal stability, mechanical strength, and antibacterial properties to polymeric membranes via blending, coating etc. modification methods. This paper reviews the production, structure and modification of polymer membranes with metals such as silver, copper and titanium dioxide and compounds such as graphene oxide.