سلول‌های خورشیدی پلیمری: اجزای سازنده، تولید، کاربردها و بازار

نوع مقاله: تالیفی

نویسندگان

1 پژوهشگاه پلیمر و پتروشیمی ایران

2 پسادکترا- پژوهشگاه پلیمر

3 پژوهشگر، پژوهشگاه پلیمر

چکیده

نیاز بشر به انرژی اجتناب‌ناپذیر است که به‌طور روزافزون بیشتر می‌شود. دلیل این نیاز تغییرات فناوری و توسعه جوامع مختلف انسانی در سراسر جهان است. منابع انرژی زمین محدود است، در حالی که انرژی خورشیدی به‌وفور در سطح زمین یافت می‌شود. پلیمرهای به‌کاررفته در سلول‌های خورشیدی آلی اغلب از ساختارهای آروماتیک ناجورحلقه حاوی اتم‌های غیرکربنی مانند اکسیژن، نیتروژن و گوگرد تشکیل شده‌اند. این ساختارها شبکه رزونانسی تشکیل می‌دهند که باعث نزدیکی بالاترین اوربیتال‌های مولکولی اشغال‌شده (HOMO) به پایین‌ترین اوربیتال‌های مولکولی اشغال‌نشده (LUMO) و در نتیجه کوچک‌شدن گاف‌های انرژی می‌شود. به‌طور کلی، پلیمرها به‌عنوان دهنده و سایر مولکول‌ها به‌عنوان گیرنده الکترون استفاده می‌شوند تا الکترون‌ها را به سمت آند هدایت کنند. فعالیت در زمینه‌ فناوری‌های مختلف برای جمع‌آوری و ذخیره انرژی خورشیدی در حال انجام است و برخی فناوری‌ها رشد خوبی داشته‌اند. سلول‌های خورشیدی پلیمری یکی از این شاخه‌های فناوری است که به‌دلیل انرژی‌بری کم طی تولید و فرایند سریع تولید غلتک‌به‌غلتک از مزایای متعددی برخوردار است. از سوی دیگر، به‌دلیل انعطاف‌پذیری و سبکی، سلول‌های خورشیدی پلیمری کاربردهای گسترده و در حال توسعه‌ای یافته‌اند. از این‌رو، در آینده نزدیک با افزایش بازده و
طول عمر، این سلول‌ها رشد سریعی داشته و در حوزه‌هایی مانند مواد فوتوولتایی یکپارچه ساختمانی نقش غالب خواهند داشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Polymer Solar Cells: Components, Production, Applications, and the Market

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Akbar Yousefi 1
  • Alireza Mohebbi 2
  • Samira Fallahdoost 3
2 Polymer solar cells center
3 Polymer Solar cell center
چکیده [English]

Human need for energy is an inevitable necessity, which is increasing day by day. The reason for this is the need for technological change and the development of various human societies around the world. There are limited sources of energy available on the earth, while solar energy is abundantly available at the surface of the earth. The polymers normally used in organic solar cells are often made of aromatic heterocyles structures which contain heteroatoms such as oxygen, nitrogen and sulfure. These structures form a resonating network which leads to closing together HUMO and LOMO which results in small energy gaps. Polymers are normally used as donors and other molecules are used as acceptors to conduct electrons towards anode. Activities on different technologies are underway to collect and store solar energy, and some of them have grown well. Polymer solar cells are one of these technological branches, which have many advantages due to their low energy consumption in their production and the rapid roll-to-roll production process. On the other hand, due to the flexibility and lightness of the polymeric solar cells, there are many developing applications for this type of solar cells. Thus, in the near future, by increasing the efficiency and longevity, polymer solar cells grow rapidly and take on dominant positions in areas such as building integrated photovoltaics (BIPVs).

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • solar energy
  • polymer solar cell
  • conductive polymer
  • market
  • building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV)
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