نانوکامپوزیت‌های پلی‌آنیلین پایه‌گرافنی و کاربرد آن‌ها در طراحی سلول‌های خورشیدی آلی

نوع مقاله: تالیفی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد، دانشگاه صنعتی امیرکبیر

2 استادیار- دانشگاه صنعتی امیرکبیر

3 دانشجوی دکترا، دانشگاه صنعتی امیرکبیر

چکیده

در سال‌های اخیر، مواد کربنی و به‌طور خاص گرافن با توجه به خواص الکتریکی، گرمایی، مکانیکی، نوری و الکتروشیمیایی منحصر به فرد برای ترکیب با سایر مواد مورد توجه بسیاری بوده‌اند. نانوکامپوزیت‌های پلیمر-گرافن از رایج‌ترین نانوکامپوزیت‌های پایه‌ پلیمری هستند که در مقایسه با مواد خالص خواص گرمایی، الکتریکی، مکانیکی، نوری و الکتروشیمیایی بسیار بهتری دارند. پلی‌آنیلین با توجه به خواص بسیار گسترده‌ آن، مانند هزینه تهیه کم، پایداری و ثبات زیست‌محیطی زیاد، فعالیت الکتروکاتالیزی منحصربه‌فرد، رسانندگی الکتریکی مناسب و آماده‌سازی آسان پلیمر رسانای مناسب برای کاربردهای الکترونیکی، نوری و الکتروشیمیایی است. طی چند سال گذشته، نانوکامپوزیت‌های کربنی پلی‌آنیلین با توجه به خواص جدید و کاربردهای بسیار متنوع آن‌ها توجه زیادی را به خود جلب کرده‌اند. سنتز و استفاده از این نانوکامپوزیت‌های کربنی و به‌ویژه گرافن در سلول‌های خورشیدی آلی از راهکارهای ارائه شده برای بهبود خواص آن‌ها در سال‌های اخیر است. در این مقاله مروری، پس از بیان مقدمه‌ای در باره سلول‌های خورشیدی آلی، خواص پلی‌آنیلین، مواد کربنی و گرافن به انواعی از پرکاربردترین نانوکامپوزیت‌های کربنی پلی‌آنیلین و به‌ویژه گرافن-پلی‌آنیلین و برخی از پژوهش‌های انجام شده با هدف طراحی سلول‌های خورشیدی آلی در چند سال اخیر اشاره شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Graphene-based Polyaniline Nanocomposites and their Applications in Organic Solar Cells

نویسندگان [English]

  • Farzaneh Alipour 1
  • leila naji 2
  • zahra Fakharan 3
چکیده [English]

Carbon materials and specially graphene, due to their unique electrical, thermal, mechanical, optical and electrochemical properties have been very popular to combine with other materials and formation of nanocomposites in recent years. Graphene-based polymer nanocomposites are one of the most common polymer-based nanocomposites. They have much better thermal, electrical, mechanical, optical and electrochemical properties than pure substances i.e., polymer and graphene. Polyaniline is a useful conducting polymer that has been widely used in electronic devices, optical and electrochemical applications owing to its low cost, good environmental stability, interesting electroactivity, good electrical conductivity and easy preparation. Carbon-based polyaniline nanocomposites have attracted a great deal of interest due to their new properties or enhanced performance during the past few years. In recent years, synthesis and application of polyaniline/graphene nanocomposites is one of the most important strategies to improve organic solar cell functions. In this review, after a brief introduction on organic solar cells, the properties of polyaniline, carbon materials and graphene, references have been made to the most common types of carbon-based polyaniline nanocomposites, specially polyaniline/graphene. Some of the research done in the last few years is with the aim of designing organic solar cell in order to improve their performance in the past few years.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • organic solar cell
  • polyaniline
  • Nanocomposite
  • carbon based nanocomposite
  • Graphene
1.
Kazemifard S., Naji L., Afshar Taromi F., and Fakharan Z., A Review on Polymer Solar Cells, Performance, Mechanism and their Characterization, Polymerization (Persian), 6, 44-54, 2015.
2.
Kay A. and Graetzel M., Artificial Photosynthesis, Photosensitization
of Titania Solar Cells with Chlorophyll Derivatives and Related Natural Porphyrins, J. Phys. Chem., 97, 6272-6277, 1993.
3.
O'regan B. and Graetzel M., A Low-Cost, High-Efficiency Solar Cell Based on Dye-Sensitized Colloidal TiO2 Films, Nature,
353, 737-740, 1991.
4.
Wang Q., Ito S., Graetzel M., Fabregat-Santiago F., MoraSero I., Bisquert J., Bessho T., and Imai H., Characteristics of High Efficiency Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells, J. Phys. Chem. B, 110, 25210-25221, 2006.
5.
Zhang Q., Myers D., Lan J., Jenekhe S.A., and Cao G., Applications
of Light Scattering in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 14, 14982-14998, 2012.
6.
Li C., Chen Y., Wang Y., Iqbal Z., Chhowalla M., and Mitra S., A Fullerene–Single Wall Carbon Nanotube Complex for Polymer
Bulk Heterojunction Photovoltaic Cells, J. Mater. Chem., 17, 2406-2411, 2007.
7.
Lee U.J., Lee S.-H., Yoon J.J., Oh S.J., Lee S.H., and Lee J.K., Surface Interpenetration Between Conducting Polymer and PET Substrate for Mechanically Reinforced ITO-free flexible Organic Solar Cells, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells, 108, 50–56, 2013.
8.
Wu J., Li Y., Tang Q., Yue G.N., Lin J., Huang M., and Meng L., Bifacial Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: A Strategy to Enhance Overall Efficiency Based on Transparent Polyaniline Electrode,
Sci. Rep., 4, 20452322,
2014.
9.
Guenes S., Neugebauer H., and Sariciftci N.S., Conjugated Polymer-Based Organic Solar Cells, Chem. Rev., 107, 1324–1338, 2007.
10.
Trends in Polyaniline Research, Ohsaka T., Chowdhury A.-N., Rahman A., and Islam M. (Eds.), Nova Science, New York, 181-202, 2013.
11.
Bejbouji H., Vignau L., Miane J.L., Dang M.-T., Oualim E.M., Harmouchi M., and Mouhsen A., Polyaniline as a Hole Injection
Layer on Organic Photovoltaic Cells, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells, 94, 176–181, 2010.
12.
Chauhan N.P.S., Ameta K., Ameta R., and Amet S.C., Thermal and Conducting Behavior of Emeraldine Base (EB) Form of Polyaniline (PANI), Indian J. Chem. Technol., 18, 118-122, 2011.
13.
Qiao Q., Organic Solar Cells: Materials, Devices, Interfaces, and Modeling, CRC, USA, 379-391, 2015.
14.
Bedeloglu A., Jimenez P., Demir A., Bozkurt Y., Maser W.K., and Sariciftci N.S., Photovoltaic Textile Structure Using Polyaniline/
Carbon Nanotube Composite Materials, J. Text. Inst., 102, 857–862, 2011.
15.
Stejskal J., Polyaniline Preparation of a Conducting Polymer (IUPAC Technical Report), Pure Appl. Chem., 74, 857–867, 2002.
16.
Wang L., Lu X., Lei S., and Song Y., Graphene-Based Polyaniline
Nanocomposites: Preparation, Properties and Applications,
J. Mater. Chem. A, 2, 4491–4509, 2014.
17.
Jeong G.-H., Kim S.-J., Han E.-M., and Park K.-H., Graphene/Polyaniline Nano-composite Multilayer Counter Electrode by Inserted Polyaniline of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst., 620, 112–116, 2015.
18.
Salvatierra R.V., Zitzer G., Savu S.-A., Alves A.P., Zarbin A.J.G., Chassé T., Casu M.B., and Rocc M.L.M., Carbon Nanotube/Polyaniline Nanocomposites: Electronic Structure, Doping Level and Morphology Investigations, Synth. Met., 203, 16–21, 2015.
19.
Ebrahim S., Soliman M., Anas M., Hafez M., and Abdel-Fattah T.M., Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Based on Polyaniline/Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Counter Electrode, Int. J. Photoenergy, 20, 906820, 2013.
20.
Krebs F.C., Fabrication and Processing of Polymer Solar Cells: A Review of Printing and Coating Techniques, Sol. Energy
Mater. Sol. Cells, 93, 394-412, 2009.
21.
Xiong S., Yang F., Jiang H., Ma J., and Lu X., Covalently Bonded Polyaniline/ Fullerene Hybrids with Coral-Like Morphology
for High-Performance Supercapacitor, Electrochim. Acta, 85, 235-242, 2012.
22.
Inoue K., Akiyama T., Suzuki A., and Oku T., Organic Solar Cells Based on Electro-deposited Polyaniline Films, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., 51, 4S, 2012.

23.
Singh K., Ohlan A., and Dhawan S.K., Nanocomposites-New Trends and Developments, Intech, Croatia, 37-70, 2012.
24.
Wan L., Wang B., Wang S., Wang X., Guo Z., Xiong H., Dong B., Zhao L., Lu H., Xu Z., Zhang X., Li T., and Zhou W., Water-Soluble Polyaniline/Graphene Prepared by In-situ Polymerization
in Graphene Dispersions and Use as Counter-Electrode Materials for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells, React. Funct. Polym., 79, 47–53, 2014.
25.
Wang Q., Zhuo S., and Xing W., Graphene/Polyaniline Nanocomposite
as Counter Electrode of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells, Mater. Lett., 69, 27–29, 2012.
26.
Hsu Y.-C., Chen G.-L., and Lee R.-H., Graphene Oxide Sheet-Polyaniline Nano-composite Prepared Through In-situ Polymerization/
Deposition Method for Counter Electrode of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell, J. Polym. Res., 21, 440, 2014.
27.
Kumari P., Khawas K., Nandy S., and Kuila B.K., A Supramolecular
Approach to Polyaniline Graphene Nanohybrid with Three Dimensional Pillar Structures for High Performing Electrochemical Supercapacitor Applications, Electrochim. Acta, 190, 596–604, 2016.
28.
Bae S., Lee J.U., Park H.-S., Jung E.H., Jung J.W., and Jo W.H., Enhanced Performance of Polymer Solar Cells with PSSA-g-PANI/Graphene Oxide Composite as Hole Transport Layer, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells, 130, 599–604, 2014.
29.
Chatterjee S., Layek R.K., and Nandi A.K., Changing the Morphology of Polyaniline from a Nanotube to a Flat Rectangular
Nanopipe by Polymerizing in the Presence of Amino-Functionalized Reduced Graphene Oxide and its Resulting Increase in Photocurrent, Carbon, 52, 509-519, 2013.