مروری بر زخم‌پوش‌های تجاری مدرن و معرفی چند زخم‌پوش جدید ترمیم زخم

نوع مقاله: تالیفی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه یزد

2 استادیار، دانشگاه شهیدبهشتی

3 دانشگاه شهیدصدوقی یزد

چکیده

امروزه زخم‌پوش‌ها یا پانسمان‌های تجاری مختلف توسعه یافته و به بازار معرفی شده‌اند. اما تنوع آن‌ها، انتخاب نوع مناسب را برای پرستار سخت می‌کند. اگر چه از مهم‌ترین دلایل استفاده از زخم‌پوش محافظت از زخم در برابر آلودگی و جلوگیری از عفونت است، اما در حقیقت، هدف اصلی استفاده از آن سرعت بخشیدن به روند ترمیم زخم است. در مقاله پیش رو، افزون بر مرور تاریخچه گسترش و انواع زخم‌پوش‌‌های تجاری نوین، سعی شده تا مشخص شود هر زخم‌پوش در کدام مرحله از بهبود زخم مؤثرتر عمل می‌کند. زخم‌پوش‌های تجاری به شکل‌های هیدروژل، هیدروکلویید، فیلم، اسفنج و نانوالیاف معرفی شده و در زمینه خواص هر یک از آن‌ها بحث می‌شود. همچنین کیتوسان، آلژینات و عسل به‌عنوان مهم‌ترین پلی‌ساکاریدهای متداول در زخم‌پوش‌ها معرفی و اثر آن‌ها بر ترمیم زخم، شرح داده می‌شود. در نهایت، زخم‌پوش‌های هوشمندی بررسی می‌شوند که به‌تازگی توسعه یافته‌اند و می‌توانند عفونی‌شدن زخم را آشکار کنند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Modern Commercial Wound Dressings and Introducing New Wound Dressings for Wound Healing: A Review

نویسنده [English]

  • Mojtaba Koosha 2
چکیده [English]

The skin is the largest organ in the body which protects the internal organs against external injury. When the skin is damaged, microorganisms attack easily and cause infection in humans. Many efforts have been made for development of new products to protect the skin from damage and dehydration. Because of the diversity in the wound dressing products, one may possibly be confused when choosing a suitable wound dressing. Although, protection of the wound from infection is one of the reasons for using a wound dressing, acceleration of wound healing process is the main goal. In this paper, we have reviewed several types of modern wound dressings regarding their efficiency in each stage of wound healing. Commercial wound dressings in the form of hydrogels, hydrocolloids, films, foams and nanofibers are introduced and their properties are discussed. Chitosan, alginate and honey are the main common polysaccharides which are usually used as wound dressing materials. The effect of these polysaccharides on wound healing is also described. Finally, the recently developed smart wound dressings which are able to detect the wound infection are presented.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Skin
  • wound dressing
  • Wound healing
  • Chitosan
  • alginate
1. Geerligs M., Oomens C., Ackermans P., Baaijens F., and Peters G., Linear Shear Response of the Upper Skin Layers, Biorheology, 48, 229-245, 2011.

2. Geerligs M., Skin Layer Mechanics, PhD Thesis, Eindhoven University of Technology, November 2009.

3. Afaghi E. and Mahmoudi H., The Role of Moist Dressings in Wound Healing, Edu. J. Baqiyatallah Uni. Nurs. Faculty (Persian), 15, 11-16, 2015.

4. Riahi S., Imani H., Torkaman G., Mofid M., Ghoshouni H., and Khoshbaten A., Investigation of the Effectiveness of the Topical Treatment of Honey in the Full Thickness Wounds in Rats (Persian), Kowsar Med. J., 13, 169-178, 1387.

5. Zahedi P., Rezaeian I., Ranaei Siadat S.O., Jafari S., and Supaphol P., A Review on Wound Dressings with an Emphasis  on Electrospun Nanofibrous Polymeric Bandages, Polym. Adv.Technol., 21, 77-95, 2010.

6. Horkan L., Stansfield G., and Miller M., An Analysis of Systematic Reviews Undertaken on Standard Advanced Wound Dressings in the Last 10 Years, J. Wound Care, 18, 298-304, 2009.

7. Sweeney I., Miraftab M., and Collyer G., A Critical Review of Modern and Emerging Absorbent Dressings Used to Treat Exuding Wounds, Int. Wound. J., 9, 601-612, 2012.

8. Sung G., Kyung Soo K., Abid Mehmood Y., Dong W., Sun Woo J., Mi Won S., Young Hun K., Chul Soon Y., Jong Oh K., and Han-Gon C., Mechanical Properties and in Vivo Healing Evaluation of a Novel Centella Asiatica Loaded Hydrocolloid Wound Dressing, Int. J. Pharm., 490, 240-247, 2015.

9. Stashak T.S., Farstvedt E., and Othic A., Update on Wound Dressings: Indications and Best Use, Clin. Tech. Equine Pract., 3, 148-163, 2004.

10. Winter G.D., Formation of the Scab and the Rate of Epithelization of Superficial Wounds in the Skin of the Young Domestic Pig, Nature, 193, 293-294, 1962.

11. Zengjie F., Bin L., Jinqing W., Songying Z., Qianqian L., Peiwei G., Limin M., and Shengrong Y., A Novel Wound Dressing Based on Ag/Graphene Polymer Hydrogel: Effectively Kill Bacteria and Accelerate Wound Healing, Adv. Funct. Mater., 24, 3933-3943, 2014.

12. Queen D., Technology Update: Understanding Hydrocolloids, Wound. Int., 1, 1-7, 2009.

13. Vowden K. and Vowden P., Understanding Exudate Management and the Role of Exudate in the Healing Process, Brit. J. Community Nurs., 8, 4-13, 2003.

14. Romanelli M., Vowden K., and Weir D., Exudate Management Made Easy, Wound Int., 1, 1-6, 2010.

15. Jones A. and San Miguel L., Are Modern Wound Dressings a Clinical and Cost-Effective Alternative to the Use of Gauze, J. Wound Care, 15, 65-69, 2006.

16. Ulery B.D., Nair L.S., and Laurencin C.T., Biomedical Applications of Biodegradable Polymers, J. Polym. Sci., Part B:Polym. Phys., 49, 832–864, 2011.

17. Dumville J., O'Meara S., Deshpande S., and Speak K., Hydrogel Dressings for Healing Diabetic Foot Ulcers, Cochrane Database Sys. Rev. (Online), 7, 1-46, 2011.

18. Fletcher J., Moore Z., Anderson I., and Matsuzaki K., Pressure Ulcers and Hydrocolloids Made Easy, Wound. Int., 2, 1-6,2011.

19. Thomas S. and Loveless P., A Comparative Study of Twelve Hydrocolloid Dressings, World wide Wounds (online), 1, 1-12,1997.

20. William H. and Eaglistein M., Moist Wound Healing with Occlusive Dressing: A Clinical Focus, Dermatol. Surg., 27, 175-181, 2001.

21. Cui W., Quan X., Tao K., Teng Y., Zhang X., Liu Y., Shi G.,and Hou T., Mechanism of Action of Neomycin on Erwinia Carotovora Subsp. Carotovora, Pestic. Biochem. Phys., 95,85-89, 2009.

22. Ng S.F. and Jumaat N., Carboxymethyl Cellulose Wafers Containing Antimicrobials: A Modern Drug Delivery System for Wound Infections, Eur. J. Pharm. Sci., 51, 173-179, 2014.

23. Juris S.J., Mueller A., Smith B.T.L., Johnston S., Walker R.,and Kross R.D., Biodegradable Polysaccharide Gels for SkinScaffolds, J. Biomater. Nanobiotechnol., 2, 216-225, 2011.

24. Dong Y., Hassan W.U., Kennedy R., Greiser U., Pandit A.,Garcia Y., and Wang W., Performance of an in Situ Formed

Bioactive Hydrogel Dressing from a Peg-Based Hyperbranched Multifunctional Copolymer, Acta Biomater., 10,2076-2085, 2014.

25. O'Dwyre L., Wound Dressings, Vet. Nurs. J., 20, 28-30, 2005.

26. Gloeckner Powers J., Morton L.M., and Phillips T.J., Dressings for Chronic Wounds, Dermatol. Ther., 26, 197-226, 2013.

27. Morgan D., Wounds-What Should a Dressings Formulary Include?,Pharmaceut. J., 9, 261-266, 2009.

28. Davies P. and Rippon M., Comparison of Foam and Hydrocolloid Dressings in the Management of Wounds: A Review

of the Published Literature, http://www.worldwidewounds.com/2010/July/DaviesRippon/DaviesRippon.html, Available

in: 12 November 2014.

29. Ramos-e-Silva M. and Ribeiro de Castro M.C., New Dressings Including Tissue Engineered Living Skin, Clin. Dermatol.,

20, 715-723, 2002.

30. Dinah F. and Adhikari A., Gauze Packing of Open Surgical Wounds: Empirical or Evidence-Based Practice?, Ann. R.

Coll. Surg. Engl., 88, 33-36, 2006.

31. Trengove N.J., Stacey M.C., Macauley S., Bennett N., Gibson J., Burslem F., Murphy G., and Schultz G., Analysis of the

Acute and Chronic Wound Environments: The Role of Proteases and Their Inhibitors, Wound Repair Regen., 7, 442-452,

1999.

32. Daunton C., Kothari S., Smith L., and Steele D., A History of Materials and Practices for Wound Management, Wound

Practice Res., 20, 174-186, 2012.

33. Mogoşanu G.D. and Grumezescu A.M., Natural and Synthetic Polymers for Wounds and Burns Dressing, Int. J. Pharm., 463,

127-136, 2014.

34. Fan L., Du Y., Zhang B., Yang J., Zhou J., and Kennedy J.F.,Preparation and Properties of Alginate/Carboxymethyl Chitosan

Blend Fibers, Carbohydr. Polym., 65, 447-452, 2006.

35. Fletcher J., Wound Bed Preparation and the Time Principles,Nurs. Stand., 20, 57-65, 2005.

36. Gilchrist T. and Martin A.M., Wound Treatment with SorbsananAlginate Fibre Dressing, Biomaterials, 4, 317-320, 1983.

37. Moshakis V., Fordyce M., Griffiths J., and McKinna J., Tegaderm Versus Gauze Dressing in Breast Surgery, Brit. J. Clin.

Pract., 38, 149-152, 1984.

38. Thomas S. and Loveless P., Comparative Review of the Properties of Six Semipermeable Film Dressings, Pharm. J., 240,

785-787, 1988.

39. Doillon C. and Silver F., Collagen-Based Wound Dressing: Effects of Hyaluronic Acid and Fibronectin on Wound Healing,

Biomaterials, 7, 3-8, 1986.

40. Chattopadhyay S. and Raines R., Review Collagen-Based Biomaterials for Wound Healing, Biopolymers, 101, 821-833,2014.

41. Ueno H., Yamada H., Tanaka I., Kaba N., Matsuura M., Okumura M., Kadosawa T., and Fujinaga T., Accelerating Effects

of Chitosan for Healing at Early Phase of Experimental OpenWound in Dogs, Biomaterials, 20, 1407-1414, 1999.

42. Rao K., Recent Developments of Collagen-Based Materials for Medical Applications and Drug Delivery Systems, J. Biomater.Sci., Polym. Ed., 7, 623-645, 1995.

43. Voinchet V., Vasseur P., and Kern J., Efficacy and Safety of Hyaluronic Acid in the Management of Acute Wounds, Am. J.

Clin. Dermatol., 7, 353-357, 2006.

44. Boateng J., Matthews K., Stevens H., and Eccleston G.,Wound Healing Dressings and Drug Delivery Systems: A Review,

J. Pharm. Sci., 97, 2892-2923, 2008.

45. Lawrence J., The Use of Iodine as an Antiseptic Agent, J.Wound Care, 7, 421-425, 1998.

46. Habibi S., Razaghpour M., Allahgholi M., and Nazockdast H.,Properties and Medical Applications of Electrospun Chitosan

Nanofibers: A Review, J. Text. Sci. Technol. (Persian), 4, 43-55, 2014.

47. Koosha M. and Mirzadeh H., Electrospinning, Mechanical Properties, and Cell Behavior Study of Chitosan/PVA Nanofibers,

J. Biomed. Mater. Res. Part A, 103, 3081-3093, 2015.

48. Koosha M., Mirzadeh H., Shokrgozar M.A., and Farokhi M.,Nanoclay-Reinforced Electrospun Chitosan/PVA Nanocomposite Nanofibers for Biomedical Applications, RSC Adv., 5,10479-10487, 2015.

49. Junga S.M., Yoon G.H., Lee H.C., and Shin H.S., Chitosan Nanoparticle/PCL Nanofiber Composite for Wound Dressing

and Drug Delivery, J. Biomater. Sci., Polym. Ed., 26, 252-263,2015.

50. Fathollahipour S., Abouei Mehrizi A., Ghaee A., and Koosha M., Electrospinning of PVA/Chitosan Nanocomposite Nanofibers Containing Gelatin Nanoparticles as a Dual Drug Delivery System, J. Biomed. Mater. Res. Part A, 103, 3852-3862,

2015.

51. Hu J., Meng H., Li G., and Ibekwe S.I., A Review of Stimuli-Responsive Polymers for Smart Textile Applications, Smart

Mater. Struct., 21, 23001-23022, 2012.

52. Mojmeli M., Fabrication of Smart Wound Dressings (Persian),http://www.salamatnews.com, Available in: 2015-06-29.

53. Landsman A., A New “Smart” Wound Dressing to ControlMoisture Content and Reduce Pain, http://www.solublesystems.

com, Available in: 2015-01-01.

54. Zhou J., Tun T., Hong S., Mercer-Chalmers J., Laabei M.,Young A., and Jenkins A., Development of a Prototype Wound

Dressing Technology Which Can Detect and Report Colonization by Pathogenic Bacteria, Biosens. Bioelectron., 30, 67-72,

2011.

55. Werner S. and Grose R., Regulation of Wound Healing byGrowth Factors and Cytokines, Physiol. Rev., 83, 835-870,2003.

56. Greenhalgh D., The Role of Growth Factors in Wound Healing,J. Traum. Acute. Care. Surg., 41, 159-167, 1996.

57. Ulubayram K., Cakar A.N., Korkusuz P., Ertan C., and Hasirci N., EGF Containing Gelatin-Based Wound Dressings, Biomaterials,22, 1345-1356, 2001.

58. Fonder M.A., Lazarus G.S., Cowan D.A., Aronson-Cook B.,Kohli A.R., and Mamelak A.J., Treating the Chronic Wound:

A Practical Approach to the Care of Nonhealing Wounds and Wound Care Dressings, J. Am. Acad. Dermatol., 58, 185-206,

2008.

59. Badylak S.F., Extracellular Matrix as a Scaffold for Tissue Engineering in Veterinary Medicine: Applications to Soft Tissue

Healing, Clin. Tech. Equine Pract., 3, 173-181, 2004.

60. Rinaudo M., Chitin and Chitosan: Properties and Applications,Prog. Polym. Sci., 31, 603-632, 2006.

61. Lee D., Jeong S., Kim Y., Lee M., Ahn C., and Je J., Antibacterial Activity of Aminoderivatized Chitosans against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA), Bioorg. Med.Chem., 17, 7108-7112, 2009.

62. Liu H., Du Y., Wang X., and Sun L., Chitosan Kills Bacteria through Cell Membrane Damage, Int. J. Food Microbiol., 95,

147-155, 2004.

63. Vallapa N., Wiarachai O., Thongchul N., Pan J., Tangpasuthadol V., Kiatkamjornwong S., and Hoven V.P., Enhancing

Antibacterial Activity of Chitosan Surface by Heterogeneous Quaternization, Carbohydr. Polym., 83, 868-875, 2011.

64. Muzzarelli R.A.A., Chitins and Chitosans for the Repair, of Wounded Skin, Nerve, Cartilage and Bone, Carbohydr.

Polym., 76, 167-182, 2009.

65. Park P.J., Je J.Y., Jung W.K., Ahn C.B., and Kim S.K., Anticoagulant Activity of Heterochitosans and Their Oligosaccharide

Sulfates, Eur. Food Res. Technol., 219, 529-533, 2004.

66. Kim S.K. and Jeon Y.J., Antitumor Activity of Chitosan Oligosaccharides Produced in Ultrafiltration Membrane Reactor

System, J. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 12, 503-507, 2002.

67. Molan P., Honey as a Topical Antibacterial Agent for Treatment of Infected Wounds, http://www.worldwidewounds.

com/2001/november/Molan/honey-as-topical-agent.html,Available in: 7 October 2015.

68. Visavadia B., Honeysett J., and Danford M., Manuka HoneyDressing: An Effective Treatment for Chronic Wound Infections,

Brit. J. Oral Max. Surg., 46, 55-56, 2008.

69. Dunford C. and Cooper M., Using Honey as a Dressing for Infected Skin Lesions, Nurs. Times, 96, 7-9, 2000.

70. Lusby P., Coombes A., and Wilkinson J., Honey: A Potent Agent for Wound Healing, J. Wound Ostomy Cont., 29, 295-

300, 2002.

71. Dehghan R. and Koosha M., Specifications of Polyurethanesas Prosthetic Heart Valves, Polymerization (Persian), 5, 48-

60, 2015.