پلیمرهای استفاده‌شده در سامانه‌های دارورسانی مخاط‌چسب

نوع مقاله: تالیفی

نویسندگان

1 تربیت مدرس

2 گروه مهندسی زیست پزشکی، دانشکده مهندسی شیمی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

چکیده

در اوایل دهه 1980، پلیمرهای مخاط‌چسب در طراحی سامانه‌های دارورسانی استفاده شدند. این سامانه‌ها به‌دلیل قابلیت چسبیدن و باقی‌ماندن بر سطوح مخاطی و آزادسازی آهسته دارو، به‌عنوان سامانه‌های دارویی نوین مطرح شده‌اند و جایگزین مناسبی برای سامانه‌های خوراکی در غلبه بر مشکلات متداول به‌شمار می‌روند. سامانه‌های مخاط‌چسب را می‌توان در اشکال دارویی مختلف از جمله قرص، ژل، فیلم دهانی، افشانه، محلول گرانرو و میکرو-نانوذرات تهیه کرد. در این دارورسانی می‌توان از گونه، زیر زبان، روده، چشم، بینی، واژن و سایر مسیرهای مخاطی استفاده کرد. پلیمرهای مخاط‌چسب که مهم‌ترین جزء این سامانه‌های دارویی هستند، معمولاً درشت‌مولکول‌های آب‌دوست طبیعی، مصنوعی یا نیمه‌طبیعی دارای گروه‌های عاملی تشکیل‌‌دهنده پیوندهای هیدروژنی نظیر گروه‌های کربوکسیل، هیدروکسیل یا آمین هستند. از این رو، فرایند مخاط‌چسبی تحت تاثیر واکنش بین پلیمر و مخاط است و قدرت چسبندگی بر اساس ویژگی‌های مختلف پلیمر و شرایط محیطی تعیین می‌شود که پلیمر در آن ساکن است. در این مقاله، سازوکار مخاط‌چسبی و عوامل موثر بر آن؛ پلیمرهای مخاط‌چسب طبیعی، سنتزی و نیمه‌طبیعی؛ خواص و ویژگی‌های این پلیمرها؛ کاربرد آن‌ها در طراحی و توسعه سامانه‌های مخاط‌چسب و نیز نسل جدید پلیمرهای مخاط‌چسب مانند پلیمرهای مخاط‌چسب تیول‌دار‌شده، بررسی شده‌اند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Polymers Used in Mucoadhesive Drug Delivery Systems

نویسنده [English]

  • fariba hashemi afzal 2
2 Biomedical Engineering Group, Chemical Engineering Faculty, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Mucoadhesive polymers were first used in the early 1980s to design mucoadhesive
buccal drug delivery systems. These systems have been introduced as novel drug
delivery systems due to the ability to stick and stay on mucus membranes and slow release of
the drug and as suitable alternative to overcome the problems of common oral drug delivery
systems. Mucoadhesive systems can be prepared in various forms, such as tablet, gel, oral
film, spray, viscous solution and micro/nanoparticles, and can be used for drug delivery
from the buccal, sublingual, intestine, ocular, nasal, vaginal, and other mucosal routes.
Mucoadhesive polymers which are the most important component of the drug delivery
systems, are usually natural, synthetic or semi-natural hydrophilic macro-molecules,
containing functional groups forming hydrogen bonds, such as carboxyl and hydroxyl
groups, or amines. Hence, mucoadhesion depends on the reaction between the polymer and
the mucus and the adhesion strength is determined by the different polymer characteristics
and the medium conditions in which the polymer resides. In this article, the discussion
covers mucoadhesion mechanism and its effective factors; natural mucoadhesive polymers,
synthetic and semi-natural mucoadhesive polymers; the properties and characteristics of
these polymers; their application in the design and development of mucoadhesive systems
and also the new generation of mucoadhesive polymers such as thiolated mucoadhesive
polymers.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • drug delivery system
  • mucoadhesion mechanism
  • mucoadhesive polymer
  • natural polymer
  • synthetic polymer
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