اسفنج‌های پلی‌یورتان انعطاف‌پذیر جاذب صوت: مروری بر ساختار فیزیکی و خواص شیمیایی

نوع مقاله: تالیفی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه صنعتی امیرکبیر

چکیده

آلودگی صوتی از مهم‌ترین مشکلات زیست‌محیطی جوامع امروزی است. این مشکل با افزایش حجم تردد وسایل نقلیه و گسترش سریع صنایع، روزبه‌روز جدی‌تر می‌شود. از روش‌های حل این مشکل افزایش ضریب جذب صوت با افزایش ظرفیت اتلاف و بهینه‌سازی ساختارهای متخلخل استفاده شده به‌عنوان جاذب‌های صوت است. طی دهه گذشته، اسفنج‌های پلی‌یورتان انعطاف‌پذیر به‌دلیل قدرت میرایی موثر، چگالی کم، شکل‌پذیری زیاد و تولید آسان به‌عنوان موادی کارآمد، در صنعت جاذب‌های صوتی شناخته شده‌اند. مهم‌ترین خاصیت اسفنج‌های پلی‌یورتان انعطاف‌پذیر، داشتن حفره‌هایی با تخلخل باز به‌هم‌پیوسته است که نه‌تنها خواص مکانیکی اسفنج را تحت کنترل دارد، بلکه موجب عایق صوت بودن آن‌ها نیز می‌شود. در این مقاله، کاربردها، روند توسعه اسفنج پلی‌یورتان، ساختار شیمیایی و فیزیکی و عوامل موثر بر ویژگی‌های این اسفنج‌ها برای بررسی خاصیت جذب صوت و
اتلاف انرژی مکانیکی امواج صوتی مرور می‌شود. با توجه به نقش موثر اسفنج‌های پلی‌یورتان به‌عنوان عایق‌های صوتی، تمرکز این مقاله بر رفتار این اسفنج به‌عنوان عایق صوتی است، ازاین‌رو برخی مفاهیم فیزیکی در ارتباط با صدا و مروری بر مطالعات انجام‌شده در این حوزه نیز ارائه می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Flexible Acoustic Polyurethane Foam: An Overview of Physical Structure and Chemical Properties

نویسندگان [English]

  • sahar abdollahi baghban
  • Manouchehr khorasani
چکیده [English]

Noise is one of the most disturbing environmental problems of today's societies, and this problem becomes more serious with increasing traffic volumes and rapid expansion of industries. One of the ways to solve this problem is to increase the sound absorption coefficient of porous structure materials used as acoustic absorbers. Over the past decade, flexible polyurethane foam has been recognized in the acoustic absorbing industry as efficient materials due to its effective damping power, low density, high formability and easy production. The most important feature of flexible polyurethane foams is the presence of open porosity cavities, which not only control the mechanical properties of foam, but also their sound insulation properties. The purpose of this study is to review the applications, the development of polyurethane foam, the chemical and physical structure and the factors affecting the properties of foams due to their acoustic absorption and mechanical energy loss of sound waves. Considering the role of polyurethane foam as sound insulation, the focus of this study will be on the behavior of polyurethane foam as sound insulation, so some physical concepts related to sound will also be expressed.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • flexible polyurethane foam
  • acoustic absorber
  • urea-urethane segmented copolymer
  • microphase separation
  • sound absorption coefficient
1.
Ugarte L., Saralegi A., Fernández R., Martín L., Corcuera M., and Eceiza A., Flexible Polyurethane Foams Based on 100% Renewably Sourced Polyols, Ind. Crops. Prod., 62, 545-551, 2014.
2.
Cinelli P., Anguillesi I., and Lazzeri A., Green Synthesis of Flexible Polyurethane Foams from Liquefied Lignin, Eur. Polym. J., 49, 1174-1184, 2013.
3.
Yang X.H., Ren S.W., Wang W.B., Liu X., Xin F.X., and Lu T.J., A Simplistic Unit Cell Model for Sound Absorption of Cellular Foams with Fully/Semi-Open Cells, Compos. Sci. Technol., 118, 276-283, 2015.
4.
Lana Z., Dagaa A.R., White House R., and Mc Carthy S., Structure–Properties Relations in Flexible Polyurethane Foams Containing a Novel Bio-Based Crosslinker, Polymer, 55, 2635-2644, 2014.
5.
Chang L., Xue Y., and Hsieh F., Comparative Study of Physical
Properties of Water-Blown Rigid Polyurethane Foams Extended
with Commercial Soy Flours, Appl. Polym. Sci., 80, 10–19, 2001.
6.
Mondal P. and Khakhar D.V., Regulation of Cell Structure in Water Blown Rigid Polyurethane Foam, Macromolecules, 216, 241-254, 2004.
7.
Krol P., Synthesis Methods, Chemical Structures and Phase Structures of Linear Polyurethanes. Properties and Applications
of Linear Polyurethanes in Polyurethane Elastomers, Copolymers and Ionomers, Prog. Mater. Sci., 52, 915-1015, 2007.
8.
Simón D., de Lucas A., Rodríguez J.F., and Borreguero A.M., Glycolysis of High Resilience Flexible Polyurethane Foams Containing Polyurethane Dispersion Polyol, Polym. Degrad. Stabil., 133, 119-130, 2016.
9.
Javni I., Song K., Lin J., and Petrovic Z.S., Structure and Properties of Flexible Polyurethane Foams with Nano-and Micro-Fillers, Cell. Plast., 47, 357–372, 2011.
10.
Rossmy G.R., Kollmeier H.J., Lidy W., Schator H., and Wiemann
M.; Cell-Opening in One-Shot Flexible Polyether Based Polyurethane Foams. The Role of Silicone Surfactant and its Foundation in the Chemistry of Foam Formation, Cell.Plast., 13, 26-35, 1977.
11.
Versteegen R.M., Sijbesma R.P., and Meijer E.W., Synthesis and Characterization of Segmented Copoly(ether urea)s with Uniform Hard Segments, Macromolecules, 38, 3176-3184, 2005.
12.
Tiuca A.E., Vermeşana H., Gabora T., and Vasileb O., Improved
Sound Absorption Properties of Polyurethane Foam mixed with Textile Waste, Energy Procedia, 85, 559–565, 2016.
13.
Auten K.L. and Petrovic Z.S., Synthesis, Structural Characterization,
and Properties of Polyurethane Elastomers Containing
Various Degrees of Unsaturation in the Chain Extenders, Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys., 40, 1316–1333, 2002.
14.
Xu Y.J., Petrovic Z., Das S., and Wilkes G.L., Morphology and Properties of Thermoplastic Polyurethanes with Dangling Chains in Ricinoleate-Based Soft Segments, Polymer, 49, 4248-4258, 2008.
15.
Korley L.T.J., Pate B.D., Thomas E.L., and Hammond P.T., Effect of the Degree of Soft and Hard Segment Ordering on the Morphology and Mechanical Behavior of Semicrystalline

Segmented Polyurethanes, Polymer, 47, 73-82, 2006.
16.
Xia H., Song M., Zhang Z., and Richardson M., Microphase Separation, Stress Relaxation, and Creep Behavior of Polyurethane
Nanocomposites, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 103, 2992-3002, 2007.
17.
Arenas J.P. and Ugarte F., A Note on a Circular Panel Sound Absorber with an Elastic Boundary Condition, Appl. Acoust., 114, 10-17, 2016.
18.
Waletzko R.S., Korley L.T.J., Pate B.D., Thomas E.L., and Hammond P.T., Role of Increased Crystallinity in Deformation-
induced Structure of Segmented Thermoplastic Polyurethane
Elastomers with PEO and PEO-PPO-PEO Soft Segments and HDI Hard Segments, Macromolecules, 42, 2041-2053, 2009.
19.
Takahashi D. and Tanaka M., Flexural Vibration of Perforated Plates and Porous Elastic Materials Under Acoustic Loading, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 112, 10-11, 2009.
20.
Nieuwkoop P., Aluminum Foam: Production, Properties, and Processing, Constructeur, 44, 26-30, 2005.
21.
Sung G., Kimb J.W., and Kim J.H., Fabrication of Polyurethane
Composite Foams with Magnesium Hydroxide Filler for Improved Sound Absorption, J. Ind. Eng. Chem., 44, 99–104, 2016.
22.
Wang Y., Zhang C., Ren L., Ichchou M., Galland M.-A., and Bareille O., Influences of Rice Hull in Polyurethane Foam on its Sound Absorption Characteristics, Polym. Compos., 34, 1847-1855, 2013.
23.
Gwon J.G., Sung G., and Kim J.H., Modulation of Cavities and Interconnecting Pores in Manufacturing Water Blown Flexible Poly()urethane urea) Foams, Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf., 16, 2299-2307, 2015.
24.
Chen S., Jiang Y., Chen J., and Wang D., The Effects of Various
Additive Components on the Sound Absorption Performances
of Polyurethane Foams, Adv. Mater. Sci. Eng., 2015, 1-9, 2015.
25.
Hasani Baferani A., Katbab A.A., and Ohadi A.R., The Role of Sonication Time upon Acoustic Wave Absorption Efficiency, Microstructure, and Viscoelastic Behavior of Flexible Polyurethane/
CNT Nanocomposite Foam, Eur. Polym. J., 90, 383-391, 2017.
26.
Ibrahim M.A. and Melik R.W., Optimized Sound Absorption of A Rigid Polyurethane Foam, Arch. Acoust., 28, 305-312, 2013.
27.
Gwon J.G., Kim S.K., and Kim J.H., Sound Absorption Behavior
of Flexible Polyurethane Foams with Distinct Cellular Structures, Mater. Design, 89, 448–454, 2016.
28.
Verdejo R., Stämpfli R., Alvarez-Lainez M., Mourad S., Rodriguez-Perez M.A., Brühwiler P.A., and Shaffer M., Enhanced
Acoustic Damping in Flexible Polyurethane Foams Filled with Carbon Nanotubes, Compos. Sci. Technol., 69, 1564-1569, 2009.
29.
Sung Seok G., Kim K., Kim J.W., and Kim J.H., Effect of Isocyanate Molecular Structures in Fabricating Flexible Polyurethane
Foams on Sound Absorption Behavior, Polym. Test., 53, 156-164, 2016.