ساخت کاشتینه‌های رگ‌ مصنوعی بر پایه‌ پلی‌یورتان

نوع مقاله: تالیفی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد پژوهشگاه پلیمر و پتروشیمی ایران

2 عضو هیات علمی پژوهشگاه پلیمر و پتروشیمی ایران

چکیده

در بیمارانی که به‌دلایل مختلف از جمله بیماری‌ شریان محیطی و بیماری‌های کلیوی، دچار گرفتگی رگ شده و کارایی رگ خود را از دست می‌دهند، عموماً سه نوع درمان آنژیوپلاستی balloon)(angioplasty، اندارترکتومی (endarterectomy)  و پیوند بای‌پس (bypass grafting) بررسی می‌شوند. در مواردی که گرفتگی رگ شدید است یا در چند ناحیه از رگ گرفتگی وجود داشته باشد، عموماً از پیوند بای‌پس استفاده می‌شود. همچنین، در برخی سوختگی‌های شدید رگ‌های بیمار ازدست ‌رفته و به جایگزینی مناسب برای آن‌ها نیاز است. در برخی موارد، بیمار فاقد رگ مناسب برای خودپیوندینه (تأمین پیوند از بدن خود بیمار) و انجام جراحی بای‌پس است. از طرفی، نیاز به انجام دو جراحی روی بیمار در بیمارانی که خودپیوندینه انجام می‌دهند، از نقاط ضعف این نوع درمان محسوب می‌شود. درنتیجه، پژوهشگران برای ساخت کاشتینه رگ ‌مصنوعی تلاش می‌کنند. دسته‌ای از مواد مورد توجه برای این هدف، پلی‌یورتان‌ها هستند. دلیل این مسئله ویژگی‌هایی از جمله خون‌سازگاری، زیست‌سازگاری و از همه مهم‌تر قابلیت این مواد در طراحی خواص مدنظر است. در کار حاضر، روند تحقیقات پژوهشگران برای ساخت کاشتینه رگ ‌مصنوعی بر پایه پلی‌یورتان بررسی و بر اساس اصلاح ساختار شیمیایی زنجیر اصلی، اصلاح سطح یا اصلاح توده دسته‌بندی شده‌اند. اثرگذاری این روش‌ها بر پارامترهای مهمی از جمله سمیت، چسبندگی اندوتلیال، چسبندگی پلاکت و پارامترهایی از این دست نیز مرور می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Fabrication of Polyurethane-based Artificial Blood Vessel Implants

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zahra Zaredar 1
  • Fahimeh Askari 2
  • Parvin shokrollahi 2
1 MSc student Iran polymer& petrochemical institute.
2 Assistant Professor at the Iran polymer & petrochemical Institute
چکیده [English]

In patients suffering from peripheral arterial disease; where vessels narrow and/or lose their efficiency and kidney failure; where hemodialysis is performed through an arteriovenous (AV) fistula that connects an artery to a vein, to purify blood, three types of surgical treatment; namely angioplasty, endarterectomy, and bypass grafting are vigorously considered. In cases like acute artery stenosis and multi-focal stenosis, a bypass is generally used. In addition, burns can damage blood vessels and cause fluid loss. This may result in low blood volume (hypovolemia) and in this case a bypass graft surgery is inevitable. However, in some cases, patients lack appropriate vessels for autologous grafting (autologous grafting includes grafting of a tissue from one site to another site of the same body). Furthermore, in autologous transplantation, a patient undergoes two surgeries simultaneously. In this respect, researchers have focused on designing artificial blood vessels as vascular implants. A class of materials that is highly regarded promising is polyurethanes, due to a number of outstanding properties including blood compatibility, biocompatibility, and most importantly, capability to tailor desirable properties. This report focuses on application of polyurethanes as artificial blood vessels while the impact of key parameters such as design of the polyurethane backbone, surface modification, and bulk modification, on the polymer key properties including: toxicity, endothelialization, and platelets adhesion are reviewed

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • artificial vessel
  • polyurethane
  • biocompatibility
  • surface modification
  • bulk modification
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