مروری بر روش‌های میکروساخت هیدروژل‌های ژلما

نوع مقاله: تالیفی

نویسندگان

1 علم و صنعت

2 دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران

چکیده

در دهه اخیر، هیدروژلما به عنوان یکی از هیدروژل‌های زیست‌سازگار و زیست‌تخریب‌پذیر مطرح در کاربردهای مختلف مهندسی پزشکی معرفی شده است. ژلما زیست‌پلیمری است که از واکنش مستقیم ژلاتین و متاکریلیک انیدرید به‌دست می‌آید. این پلیمر، به دلیل خواص زیستی و فیزیکی مناسب در طراحی و مهندسی داربست‌ها، ایجاد میکرو یا نانوکامپوزیت‌های پلیمری، طراحی سامانه‌های دارورسانی، سیگنال‌دهی سلولی، زیست‌حسگرها، انتقال ژن و کاربردهای مختلف مهندسی پزشکی مطرح شده است. ژلما در اثر تابش فرابنفش شبکه‌ای شده و هیدروژل می‌شود. فنون مختلفی در طراحی و ساخت آن همچون الگودارکردن نوری، میکروقالب‌گیری، پدیده خودگردایش، میکروسیالی، زیست‌چاپ، بافندگی الیاف و پارچه می‌تواند به‌کار رود. ساختارهای سه‌بعدی و داربست‌ها بر اساس هیدروژل ژلما، می‌توانند برای تقلید ساختار بافت‌های طبیعی طراحی و در مهندسی بافت و بازتولید دارو استفاده شوند. هرچند چالش‌هایی همچون مقیاس‌های طولی متفاوت، نسخه‌برداری از میکرومویرگ‌های توخالی، رگ‌زایی در مقیاس میکرو و محدودیت حمل اکسیژن در گستره ابعادی سانتی‌متر وجود دارد که نیاز به بررسی بیشتر دارد. استفاده از روش‌های ترکیبی ساخت و بررسی‌های دقیق  اثر پارامترهای سامانه یا واردکردن مواد افزودنی جدید قسمتی از راه‌حل به نظر می‌رسد. قابلیت‌های ژلما در روش‌های گوناگون ساخت در کنار خواص فیزیکی، مکانیکی و زیستی انعطاف‌پذیر، آن را برای کاربردهای آینده زیست‌پزشکی و تولید اندام‌های خودگردایشی با انواع مختلف سلول‌ها مناسب می‌سازد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Microfabrication of "GelMA" Hydrogels: A Review

نویسنده [English]

  • kaveh Rahimi mamaghani 2
2 iust
چکیده [English]

In recent decades, the "GelMA" hydrogels as one of the biocompatible and biodegradable biomaterials are introduced in various applications of biomedical engineering. GelMA results from direct reaction of gelatin and methacrylic anhydride which has specific biological and physical properties making it suitable for the design and engineering of scaffolds, creating micro or nanoscale polymer nanocomposites, cell signaling, designing drug delivery systems, biosensors, and gene transfer or other biomedical engineering applications. GelMA forms cross-linked hydrogel by exposure to ultra-violet radiation. Various techniques could be applied in designing and manufacturing of GelMA in micro size, such as photopatterning, micromolding, self-assembly phenomenon, microfluidic, bioprinting, fibers and fabrics weaving. Three-dimensional structures and scaffolds based on GelMA hydrogel could be designed to mimic the structure of the natural tissue, used in tissue engineering and regeneration medicine. However, in this case, there are some challenges such as different length scales, making copies of capillary hollow microcapillaries, angiogenic production in micro size scale and limitations in oxygen-carrying through centimeter dimension, need to be investigated further. Using the combined methods of fabrication and exact investigations on the effect of process parameters and introduction of new additives could be the part of the solution. GelMA capabilities for use in various manufacturing methods, besides, its physical flexibility, mechanical and biological properties are promising for future biomedical applications and producing self-assembled organs with different types of cells.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • microfabrication
  • biocompatible polymers
  • GelMA
  • Hydrogel
  • photo-crosslinking
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