عنوان مقاله [English]
Nowadays, there is an increasing demand to produce renewable resource-based materials due to the rapid exhaustion of fossil fuels. The production of new, versatile, carbon-based building blocks from biomass resources is the unique alternative to reduce and eventually replacing petroleum-based chemicals. The presence of many functional groups in biomass-derived chemicals often results in the formation of various by-products. Carbohydrates are the most abundant source of bio-based carbon and are therefore a good option for the development of raw materials from biomass. During the acid-catalyzed dehydration of carbohydrates for the production of renewable bulk platform chemicals, such as furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and levulinic acid (LA), large amounts of carbonaceous, insoluble by-products are typically formed by cross-polymerization reactions of HMF and several sugar-dehydration intermediates. The formation of these so-called humins leads to great efficiency losses in biorefinery operations. The chemical structure of humins consist of numerous functional groups that can be used to develop a new set of thermoset polymers and composites, providing an excellent opportunity to increase the renewable carbon content of the finished products and improve their properties. This article provides various applications of humins for the preparation of resins, composites and copolymers with high bio-based carbon contents.